FOOD ALLERGY

SUMMARY

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body’s immune system.In adults,the foods that most  often trigger allergic reactions include fish, selfish,peanuts,and tree nuts,egg food,such as walnuts and others.

Condition caused by food allergy classified into three groups according to mechanisms of the allergic response.

♦  Psychopathology

1〉 IgE-mediated (classic)-the most common types, occurs shortly after eating and may involve anaphylaxis.

2〉Non- IgE mediated-characterized by an immune response not involving immunoglobulin E; may occur some hours after eating and may involve anaphylaxis.

3〉IgE and /or non-IgE-mediated-a hybrid of above two types

A histamine,the structure shown,causes a person to feel itchy during an allergic reaction.A common medication to stop this is an antihistamine,which fights the histamines in the person’s system.

Note;Body defence immune system which produce immune system antibody while we consume food it defence immunes IgE  mediated called allergy sometimes anaphylaxis.

♦ Symptoms

•Tingling and itching in the mouth ringering in a ear

•Hives, itching eczema

• Swelling of the lips,face ,tongue and throat or other parts of the body

• Wheezing nasal congestion or trouble breathing

• Abdominal pain, diarrhea,nausea and vomiting

• Dizziness lightheadedness or loss of consciousness

Emergency treatment is critical for prophylaxis.Untreated,prophylaxis can cause a coma or even death.

• What to see a docter

See a docter or allergist if you have food allergy symptoms shortly after eating.If possible, see your docter when the allergic reaction is occuring this will help docter make a diagnosis.

See emergency treatment if you develop any sign and symptoms of anaphylaxis,such as

• Constriction of airways that makes it difficult to breath

• Shock with a severe drop in blood pressure

• Rapid pulse

• Dizziness and lightheadedness

♦ Causes

When you have a food allergy, your immune system mistakenly identifies a specific food or a substances in food as something harmful.  In response, your immune system to release an antibody known as immunoglobulin E(IgE) to neutralize  the allergy causing food substance (allergen).

The next time you eat even the smallest amount of that food,IgE antibodies sense it and single your immune system to release a chemical called histamine as well as other chemicals,into your bloodstream.This chemicals called histamines,as well as other chemicals,into your blood stream.Theses chemical cause allergy symptoms.

Risk Factors

Food allergy risk factors include;

• Family history. You’re at increased risk of food allergies if asthma, eczema,hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family.

• Other allergies.If you’re already allergic to one food,you may be at increased risk of becoming allergic to another,Similarly,if you have other  types of allergic reaction,such as hay fever or eczema. You risk of having a food allergy is greater.

• Age. Food allergies are more common in children,specially toddlers and infant as you grow older, your digestive system matures and your body is less likely to absorb food or food components that trigger allergies.

Fortunately,children typically outgrow allergies to milk.soy,wheat and eggs severe allergies and allergies to nuts and selfish are more likely to lifelong

• Asthma.Asthma and food allergy commonly occur together.When they do,both food allergy and asthma systems are more likely to be severe.

Factors that may increase you risk of developing prophylactic reaction include

•Having history of asthma

•Being a teenager or younger or younger

• Delaying use of epinephrine to treat your food allergy symptoms

• Not having hives or other skin symptoms

Complication

Complication of food allergy can include;

• Anaphylaxis,This is life threatening allergic reaction.

• Atopic dermatitis eczema.

Prevention

The best way to prevent an allergic reaction is to know and avoid foods that cause signs and symptoms.for some people,this is a mere inconvenience but other finds it a greater hard ship,Also some food- when use as ingredients in certain dishes -may be well hidden.This is specially true in restaurants and in other social settings.

 

Treatment
The mainstay of treatment for food allergy is total avoidance of the foods identified as allergens. An allergen can enter the body by consuming a food containing the allergen, and can also be ingested by touching any surfaces that may have come into contact with the allergen, then touching the eyes or nose. For people who are extremely sensitive, avoidance includes avoiding touching or inhaling the problematic food. Total avoidance is complicated because the declaration of the presence of trace amounts of allergens in foods is not mandatory (see regulation of labelling).

If the food is accidentally ingested and a systemic reaction (anaphylaxis) occurs, then epinephrine should be used. A second dose of epinephrine may be required for severe reactions. The person should then be transported to the emergency room, where additional treatment can be given. Other treatments include antihistamines and steroids.[65]

Epinephrine

Epinephrine autoinjectors are portable single-dose epinephrine-dispensing devices used to treat anaphylaxis.
Epinephrine (adrenaline) is the first-line treatment for severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis). If administered in a timely manner, epinephrine can reverse its effects. Epinephrine relieves airway swelling and obstruction, and improves blood circulation; blood vessels are tightened and heart rate is increased, improving circulation to body organs. Epinephrine is available by prescription in an autoinjector.

Antihistamines
Antihistamines can alleviate some of the milder symptoms of an allergic reaction, but do not treat all symptoms of anaphylaxis. Antihistamines block the action of histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate and become leaky to plasma proteins. Histamine also causes itchiness by acting on sensory nerve terminals. The most common antihistamine given for food allergies is diphenhydramine.

Steroids
Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an allergic reaction. This treatment in the form of a nasal spray should not be used to treat anaphylaxis, for it only relieves symptoms in the area in which the steroid is in contact. Another reason steroids should not be used is the delay in reducing inflammation. Steroids can also be taken orally or through injection, by which every part of the body can be reached and treated, but a long time is usually needed for these to take effect.

Chemical structure of cortisol (hydrocortisone), an endogenous glucocorticoid as well as medication.
Class identifiers
Synonyms
Corticosteroid; Glucocorticosteroid
Use
Adrenal insufficiency; allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders; asthma; organ transplant
ATC code
H02AB
Biological target
Glucocorticoid receptor
Chemical class
Steroi

Chemical structure of cortisol (hydrocortisone), an endogenous glucocorticoid as well as medication.
Class identifiers
Synonyms
Corticosteroid; Glucocorticosteroid
Use
Adrenal insufficiency; allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders; asthma; organ transplant
ATC code
H02AB
Biological target
Glucocorticoid receptor
Chemical class

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